The Association of Age, Insomnia, and Self-Efficacy with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Black, White, and Hispanic US Veterans
1Department of Neurology, Sleep Medicine Division, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL; 2Neurology Service, Bruce W. Carter Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL; 3Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Miami, FL; 4Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO
Studies of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence in multi-ethnic samples are lacking. This study explores previously described factors associated with therapeutic CPAP use in South Florida veterans with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).
We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of CPAP adherence comparing white, black, and Hispanic veterans returning to the Miami VA sleep clinic over a 4-month period. Participants had CPAP use download and completed questionnaires on demographics, sleepiness, insomnia, and social cognitive measures related to adherence. Linear regression modeling was used to explore the impact of measured variables and potential interactions with race-ethnicity on mean daily CPAP use.
Participants (N = 248) were 94% male with mean age of 59 ± 11 years and included 95 blacks (38%), 91 whites (37%), and 62 Hispanic (25%) veterans. Blacks had less mean daily CPAP use than whites (-1.6 h, p < 0.001) and Hispanics (-1.3 h, p < 0.01). Blacks reported worse sleep onset insomnia symptoms compared to whites. In the final multivariable regression model, black race-ethnicity (p < 0.01), insomnia symptoms (p < 0.001), and self-efficacy (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with mean daily CPAP use. In addition, the black race by age interaction term showed a trend towards significance (p = 0.10).
In agreement with recent studies, we found that mean daily CPAP use in blacks was 1 hour less than whites after adjusting for covariates. No CPAP adherence differences were noted between whites and Hispanics. Further investigations exploring sociocultural barriers to regular CPAP use in minority individuals with OSAHS are needed.
Wallace DM; Shafazand S; Aloia MS; Wohlgemuth WK. The association of age, insomnia, and self-efficacy with continuous positive airway pressure adherence in black, white, and Hispanic US veterans. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):885-895.
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