Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia, which may be related to decrease androgen levels found in OSA patients. Dyslipidemia may contribute to atherosclerosis leading to increasing risk of heart disease.
Systematic review was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane library by utilizing different combinations of key words; sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, serum lipids, dyslipidemia, cholesterol, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG). Inclusion criteria were: English articles, and studies with adult population in 2 groups of patients (patients with OSA and without OSA). A total 96 studies were reviewed for inclusion, with 25 studies pooled for analysis.
Sixty-four studies were pooled for analysis; since some studies have more than one dataset, there were 107 datasets with 18,116 patients pooled for meta-analysis. All studies measured serum lipids. Total cholesterol pooled standardized difference in means was 0.267 (p = 0.001). LDL cholesterol pooled standardized difference in means was 0.296 (p = 0.001). HDL cholesterol pooled standardized difference in means was -0.433 (p = 0.001). Triglyceride pooled standardized difference in means was 0.603 (p = 0.001). Meta-regression for age, BMI, and AHI showed that age has significant effect for TC, LDL, and HDL. BMI had significant effect for LDL and HDL, while AHI had significant effect for LDL and TG.
Patients with OSA appear to have increased dyslipidemia (high total cholesterol, LDL, TG, and low HDL).
Nadeem R, Singh M, Nida M, Waheed I, Khan A, Ahmed S, Naseem J, Champeau D. Effect of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome on lipid profile: a meta-regression analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):475-489.