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Volume 10 No. 05
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Accepted Papers

Scientific Investigations

A Psychometric Study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory-Short Form (FoSI-SF)

Kristi E. Pruiksma, Ph.D.1; Daniel J. Taylor, Ph.D.2; Camilo Ruggero, Ph.D.2; Adriel Boals, Ph.D.2; Joanne L. Davis, Ph.D.3; Christopher Cranston, M.A.3; Jason C. DeViva, Ph.D.4,5; Claudia Zayfert, Ph.D.6
1The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX; 2The University of North Texas, Denton, TX; 3The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK; 4Veterans Affairs Connecticut Health Care System, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT; 5Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; 6The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH

Study Objectives:

Fear of sleep may play a significant role in sleep disturbances in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report describes a psychometric study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory (FoSI), which was developed to measure this construct.


The psychometric properties of the FoSI were examined in a non-clinical sample of 292 college students (Study I) and in a clinical sample of 67 trauma-exposed adults experiencing chronic nightmares (Study II). Data on the 23 items of the FoSI were subjected to exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify items uniquely assessing fear of sleep. Next, reliability and validity of a 13-item version of the FoSI was examined in both samples.


A 13-item Short-Form version (FoSI-SF) was identified as having a clear 2-factor structure with high internal consistency in both the non-clinical (α = 0.76–0.94) and clinical (α = 0.88-0.91) samples. Both studies demonstrated good convergent validity with measures of PTSD (0.48-0.61) and insomnia (0.39-0.48) and discriminant validity with a measure of sleep hygiene (0.19-0.27). The total score on the FoSI-SF was significantly higher in the clinical sample (mean = 17.90, SD = 12.56) than in the non-clinical sample (mean = 4.80, SD = 7.72); t357 = 8.85 p < 0.001.


Although all items are recommended for clinical purposes, the data support the use of the 13-item FoSI-SF for research purposes. Replication of the factor structure in clinical samples is needed. Results are discussed in terms of limitations of this study and directions for further research.


Pruiksma KE, Taylor DJ, Ruggero C, Boals A, Davis JL, Cranston C, DeViva JC, Zayfert C. A psychometric study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory-short form (FoSI-SF). J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):551-558.

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