Although restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common and well recognized as an important and potentially treatable cause of sleep disruption in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), few studies have evaluated the prevalence of RLS and its impact on sleep in the non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of RLS across the full spectrum of kidney disease and to assess the impact of RLS on sleep quality and daytime function.
Five hundred patients were recruited from nephrology clinics and were stratified according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (n = 127), CKD (eGFR < 60, not on dialysis, n = 242), and ESRD (on hemodialysis, n = 131). All subjects completed a sleep and medical history questionnaire, an RLS questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS).
The prevalence of RLS did not differ among the three groups (18.9% [eGFR ≥ 60], 26% (CKD), and 26% (ESRD) p = 0.27). However, many symptoms of sleep disruption were more common in patients with RLS, and RLS was independently correlated with the PSQI score both in the full cohort (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.60-4.00, p < 0.001) and the CKD group (OR = 2.39, CI = 1.20-4.79, p = 0.014).
RLS is common in non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients and is an important source of sleep disruption.
Lee J; Nicholl DDM; Ahmed SB; Loewen AHS; Hemmelgarn BR; Beecroft JM; Turin TC; Hanly PJ. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome across the full spectrum of kidney disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):455-459.