Mahowald MW, Schenck CH, authors. Medical-legal aspects of sleep medicine. Neurol Clin. 1999;17:215–34. [PubMed]
Ohayon MM, Schenck CH, authors. Violent behavior during sleep: prevalence, comorbidity and consequences. Sleep Med. 2010;11:941–6. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Plazzi G, Tinuper P, Montagna P, Provini F, Lugaresi E, authors. Epileptic nocturnal wanderings. Sleep. 1995;18:749–56. [PubMed]
Siclari F, Khatami R, Urbaniok F, et al., authors. Violence in sleep. Brain. 2010;133:3494–509. [PubMed]
Wong KE, author. Masturbation during sleep–a somnambulistic variant? Singapore Med J. 1986;27:542–3. [PubMed]
Guilleminault C, Moscovitch A, Yuen K, Poyares D, authors. Atypical sexual behavior during sleep. Psychosom Med. 2002;64:328–36. [PubMed]
Shapiro CM, Trajanovic NN, Fedoroff JP, authors. Sexsomnia-a new parasomnia? Can J Psychiatry. 2003;48:311–7. [PubMed]
Schenck CH, Arnulf I, Mahowald MW, authors. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Sleep. 2007;30:683–702. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Béjot Y, Juenet N, Garrouty R, et al., authors. Sexsomnia: an uncommon variety of parasomnia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:72–5. [PubMed]
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International Classification of Sleep Disorders. 3rd ed. Darien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2014.
Alves R, Alóe F, Tavares S, et al., authors. Sexual behavior in sleep, sleepwalking and possible REM behavior disorder: a case report. Sleep Res Online. 1999;2:71–2. [PubMed]
Della Marca G, Dittoni S, Frusciante R, et al., authors. Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep. J Sex Med. 2009;6:3490–5. [PubMed]
Cicolin A, Tribolo A, Giordano A, et al., authors. Sexual behaviors during sleep associated with polysomnographically confirmed parasomnia overlap disorder. Sleep Med. 2011;12:523–8. [PubMed]
Schenck CH, Mahowald MW, authors. Parasomnias associated with sleep-disordered breathing and its therapy, including sexsomnia as a recently recognized parasomnia. Somnology. 2008;12:38–49.
Mahowald MW, Bundlie SR, Hurwitz TD, Schenck CH, authors. Sleep violence-forensic science implications: polygraphic and video documentation. J Forensic Sci. 1990;35:413–32. [PubMed]
Mahowald MW, Schenck CH, Rosen GM, Hurwitz TD, authors. The role of a sleep disorder center in evaluating sleep violence. Arch Neurol. 1992;49:604–7. [PubMed]
Fenwick P, author. Sleep and sexual offending. Med Sci Law. 1996;36:122–34. [PubMed]
Mahowald MW, Schenck CH, authors. Parasomnias: sleepwalking and the law. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4:321–39. [PubMed]
Mahowald MW, Schenck CH, Cramer Bornemann MA, authors. Sleep-related violence. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2005;5:153–8. [PubMed]
Bornemann MA, Mahowald MW, Schenck CH, authors. Parasomnias: clinical features and forensic implications. Chest. 2006;130:605–10. [PubMed]
Andersen ML, Poyares D, Alves RS, Skomro R, Tufik S, authors. Sexsomnia: abnormal sexual behavior during sleep. Brain Res Rev. 2007;56:271–82. [PubMed]
Pressman MR, author. Factors that predispose, prime and precipitate NREM parasomnias in adults: clinical and forensic implications. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:5–30. [PubMed]
Schenck CH, Lee SA, Bornemann MA, Mahowald MW, authors. Potentially lethal behaviors associated with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: review of the literature and forensic implications. J Forensic Sci. 2009;54:1475–84. [PubMed]
Morrison I, Rumbold JM, Riha RL, authors. Medicolegal aspects of complex behaviours arising from the sleep period: A review and guide for the practising sleep physician. Sleep Med Rev. 2014;18:249–60. [PubMed]
Delgado-Rodrigues RN, Allen AN, Galuzzi dos Santos L, Schenck CH, authors. Sleep Forensics-A Critical review of the literature and brief comments on the Brazilian legal situation. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2014;72:164–9. [PubMed]
Bonkalo A, author. Impulsive acts and confusional states during incomplete arousal from sleep: crinimological and forensic implications. Psychiatr Q. 1974;48:400–9. [PubMed]
Pressman MR, author. Disorders of arousal from sleep and violent behavior: the role of physical contact and proximity. Sleep. 2007;30:1039–47. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Association of Sleep Disorders Centers and the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep. Diagnostic classification of sleep and arousal disorders. Sleep. 1979;2:1–154. [PubMed]
Oswald I, Evans J, authors. On serious violence during sleep-walking. Br J Psychiatry. 1985;147:688–91. [PubMed]
Howard C, D'Orbán PT, authors. Violence in sleep: medico-legal issues and two case reports. Psychol Med. 1987;17:915–25. [PubMed]
Broughton R, Billings R, Cartwright R, et al., authors. Homicidal somnambulism: a case report. Sleep. 1994;17:253–64. [PubMed]
Nofzinger EA, Wettstein RM, authors. Homicidal behavior and sleep apnea: a case report and medicolegal discussion. Sleep. 1995;18:776–82. [PubMed]
Kayumov L, Pandi-Perumal SR, Fedoroff P, Shapiro CM, authors. Diagnostic values of polysomnography in forensic medicine. J Forensic Sci. 2000;45:191–4. [PubMed]
Cartwright R, author. Sleepwalking violence: a sleep disorder, a legal dilemma, and a psychological challenge. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1149–58. [PubMed]
Poyares D, Almeida CM, Silva RS, Rosa A, Guilleminault C, authors. Violent behavior during sleep. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2005;27:22–6. [PubMed]
Ebrahim IO, Fenwick P, authors. Sleep-related automatism and the law. Med Sci Law. 2008;48:124–36. [PubMed]
Thomas TN, author. Sleepwalking disorder and mens rea: a review and case report. J Forensic Sci. 1997;42:17–24. [PubMed]
Borum R, Appelbaum KL, authors. Epilepsy, aggression, and criminal responsibility. Psychiatr Serv. 1996;47:762–3. [PubMed]
Schenck CH, Mahowald MW, authors. An analysis of a recent criminal trial involving sexual misconduct with a child, alcohol abuse and a successful sleepwalking defence: arguments supporting two proposed new forensic categories. Med Sci Law. 1998;38:147–52. [PubMed]
Rosenfeld DS, Elhajjar AJ, authors. Sleepsex: a variant of sleepwalking. Arch Sex Behav. 1998;27:269–78. [PubMed]
Ebrahim IO, author. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (sexsomnia). J Clin Forensic Med. 2006;13:219–24. [PubMed]
Buchanan A, author. Sleepwalking and indecent exposure. Med Sci Law. 1991;31:38–40. [PubMed]
Samuels A, O'Driscoll C, Allnutt S, authors. When killing isn't murder: psychiatric and psychological defences to murder when the insanity defence is not applicable. Australas Psychiatry. 2007;15:474–9. [PubMed]
Bornemann MA, author. Role of the expert witness in sleep-related violence trials. Virtual Mentor. 2008;10:571–7. [PubMed]
Mohanty K, author. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:129–30. [PubMed]
Bordenave FJ, Kelly DC, authors. Not guilty by reason of somnambulism. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2009;37:571–73.
Beach CA, Soliman S, authors. Reliability of sleep parasomnia and the trustworthiness of patient self-reporting. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Online. 2010;38:601–3.
Ingravallo F, Schenck CH, Plazzi G, authors. Injurious REM sleep behaviour disorder in narcolepsy with cataplexy contributing to criminal proceedings and divorce. Sleep Med. 2010;11:950–2. [PubMed]
Wortzel HS, Strom LA, Anderson AC, Maa EH, Spitz M, authors. Disrobing associated with epileptic seizures and forensic implications. J Forensic Sci. 2012;57:550–2. [PubMed]
Vlahos J, author. The case of the sleeping slayer. Sci Am. 2012;307:48–53. [PubMed]
Horne M, author. A rude awakening: what to do with the sleepwalking defense? Boston Coll Law Rev. 2004;46:149–82.
Schenck CH, Milner DM, Hurwitz TD, Bundlie SR, Mahowald MW, authors. A polysomnographic and clinical report on sleep-related injury in 100 adult patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146:1166–73. [PubMed]
Moldofsky H, Gilbert R, Lue FA, MacLean AW, authors. Sleep-related violence. Sleep. 1995;18:731–9. [PubMed]
Ohayon MM, Caulet M, Priest RG, authors. Violent behavior during sleep. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58:369–76. [PubMed]
Guilleminault C, Leger D, Philip P, Ohayon MM, authors. Nocturnal wandering and violence: review of a sleep clinic population. J Forensic Sci. 1998;43:158–63. [PubMed]
Lopez R, Jaussent I, Scholz S, Bayard S, Montplaisir J, Dauvilliers Y, authors. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. Sleep. 2013;36:345–51. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd ed: Diagnostic and coding manual. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2005.
Pressman MR, Mahowald MW, Schenck CH, Bornemann MC, authors. Alcohol-induced sleepwalking or confusional arousal as a defense to criminal behavior: a review of scientific evidence, methods and forensic considerations. J Sleep Res. 2007;16:198–212. [PubMed]
Cramer Bornemann MA, Mahowald MW, authors. Sleep forensics. In: Kryger MH, Roth C, Dement WC, editors. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2011:725–33.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
Cartwright R, author. Sleep-related violence: does the polysomnogram help establish the diagnosis? Sleep Med. 2000;1:331–5. [PubMed]
Broughton RJ, Shimizu T, authors. Sleep-related violence: a medical and forensic challenge. Sleep. 1995;18:727–30. [PubMed]
Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson A, Quan SF, authors. The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology and Technical Specifications. 1st ed. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007.
Nobili L, author. Can homemade video recording become more than a screening tool? Sleep. 2009;32:1544–5. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Joncas S, Zadra A, Paquet J, Montplaisir J, authors. The value of sleep deprivation as a diagnostic tool in adult sleepwalkers. Neurology. 2002;58:936–40. [PubMed]
Mahowald MW, Schenck CH, Cramer-Bornemann M, authors. Finally-sleep science for the courtroom. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:1–3. [PubMed]
Zadra A, Pilon M, Montplaisir J, authors. Polysomnographic diagnosis of sleepwalking: effects of sleep deprivation. Ann Neurol. 2008;63:513–9. [PubMed]
Pilon M, Montplaisir J, Zadra A, authors. Precipitating factors of somnambulism: impact of sleep deprivation and forced arousals. Neurology. 2008;70:2284–90. [PubMed]
Zucconi M, Oldani A, Ferini-Strambi L, Smirne S, authors. Arousal fluctuations in non-rapid eye movement parasomnias: the role of cyclic alternating pattern as a measure of sleep instability. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1995;12:147–54. [PubMed]
Gaudreau H, Joncas S, Zadra A, Montplaisir J, authors. Dynamics of slow-wave activity during the NREM sleep of sleepwalkers and control subjects. Sleep. 2000;23:755–60. [PubMed]
Espa F, Ondze B, Deglise P, Billiard M, Besset A, authors. Sleep architecture, slow wave activity, and sleep spindles in adult patients with sleepwalking and sleep terrors. Clin Neurophysiol. 2000;111:929–39. [PubMed]
Guilleminault C, Poyares D, Aftab FA, Palombini L, authors. Sleep and wakefulness in somnambulism: a spectral analysis study. J Psychosom Res. 2001;51:411–6. [PubMed]
Guilleminault C, author. Hypersynchronous slow delta, cyclic alternating pattern and sleepwalking. Sleep. 2006;29:14–5. [PubMed]
Guilleminault C, Kirisoglu C, da Rosa AC, Lopes C, Chan A, authors. Sleepwalking, a disorder of NREM sleep instability. Sleep Med. 2006;7:163–70. [PubMed]
Cartwright RD, Guilleminault C, authors. Defending sleepwalkers with science and an illustrative case. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:721–6. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Pressman MR, Mahowald M, Schenck C, et al., authors. Spectral EEG analysis and sleepwalking defense: unreliable scientific evidence. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014;10:111–2. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Brozman B, Foldvary NR, Dinner D, Loddenkemmper T, Lim L, Golish J, authors. The value of the unexplained polysomnographic arousals from slow-wave sleep in predicting sleepwalking and sleep terrors in a sleep laboratory patient population. Sleep. 2003;26(Abstract Suppl):A325.
Pressman MR, author. Hypersynchronous delta sleep EEG activity and sudden arousals from slow wave sleep in adults without a history of parasomnias: clinical and forensic implications. Sleep. 2004;27:706–10. [PubMed]
Pilon M, Zadra A, Joncas S, Montplaisir J, authors. Hypersynchronous delta waves and somnambulism: brain topography and effect of sleep deprivation. Sleep. 2006;29:77–84. [PubMed]
Cartwright R, Guilleminault C, authors. Slow wave activity is reliably low in sleepwalkers: response to Pressman et al. letter to the editor. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014;15:113–5. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). AASM Standards for Accreditation of Sleep Disorders Centers. 2013. Accessed April 2, 2014. Available at: http://www.aasmnet.org/Resources/PDF/AASMcenteraccredstandards.pdf.
Pevernagie D, Stanley N, Berg S, et al., authors. European guidelines for the certification of professionals in sleep medicine: report of the task force of the European Sleep Research Society. J Sleep Res. 2009;18:136–41. [PubMed]